domingo, 3 de abril de 2016

Se a alma que sente e faz conhece
Só porque lembra o que esqueceu,
Vivemos, raça, porque houvesse
Memória em nós do instinto teu.
Nação porque reencarnaste,
Povo porque ressuscitou
Ou tu, ou o de que eras a haste —
Assim se Portugal formou.
Teu ser é como aquela fria
Luz que precede a madrugada,
E é já o ir a haver o dia
Na antemanhã, confuso nada.

Mensagem, Fernando Pessoa

Lusíadas, Canto VIII estrofe VI:

Assi o gentio diz. Responde o Gama:
- « Este que vês, pastor já foi de gado;
Viriato sabemos que se chama,
Destro na lança mais que no cajado;
Injuriada tem de Roma a fama,
Vencedor invencíbil, afamado.
Não têm com ele, não, nem ter puderam,
O primor que com Pirro já tiveram;

Viriathus, the Lusitanian Hero.

The lusitanian national hero Viriathus (known as Uiriäto in Lusitanic language and Viriato in Portuguese) (born 180 BC, died 138 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of Western Hispania (as the Romans would call it to Iberia), where the Roman province of Lusitania would be established (in the areas comprising the territories today under portuguese control of Beira, and the region of Extremadura today under spanish control). The old ethnic Lusitanian Lands and the Lusitanian Nation today, included the territories between (south) of the Douro river and (north) of the Tagus river, in the portuguese side only, the lusitanian people of the spanish territory was assimiled by other peoples). Viriathus led the Lusitanians to several victories over the Romans between 147 BC and 139 BC before he was betrayed to the Romans and killed. He defeat 8 roman legions. Of him, Theodor Mommsen said "It seemed as if, in that thoroughly prosaic age, one of the Homeric heroes had reappeared."
Little is known about Viriathus. The only reference to the location of his native tribe was made by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus who claims he was from the Lusitanian tribes of the ocean side. He was borned from the lowest social classes, as a shepherd of the mountais. Later on, he become a member of one warrior order. As an adult he belonged to the class of warriors, the occupation of the minority ruling elites specialized on the war. He was known to the Romans as the dux of the Lusitanian army, as the adsertor (protector) of Hispania,[6] or as an imperator (cesar), probably of the economic-political Confederated Lusitanian and Celtiberian tribes and peoples.
Livy described him as a shepherd who became a hunter, then a soldier, thus following the path of most young warriors, the iuventus, who devoted themselves to cattle raiding, hunting and war. According to Appian, Viriathus was one of the few who escaped when Galba, the Roman consul, massacred the flos iuventutis, the flower of the young Lusitanian warriors, among thousands and thousands of lusitanians in 150 BC. Two years after the massacre, in 148 BC, Viriathus became the leader of a Lusitanian army.
Viriathus was thought by some to have a very obscure (or even sacred) origin, although Diodorus Siculus also says that Viriathus "approved himself to be a prince" and that he said he was "lord and owner of all". His family (from lowest class) was unknown to the Romans who were familiar with the native aristocratic warrior society. His personality and his physical and intellectual abilities as well as his skills as a warrior were described by several authors. He was a man of great physical strength, probably in the very prime of life, an excellent strategist owner of a brilliant mind, and with a great sense of justice. Some authors claim that the ancient authors described Viriathus with the precise features of a Celtic king.
He was described as a man who followed the principles of honesty and fair dealing and was acknowledged for being exact and faithful to his word on the treaties and leagues he made. Livy gives him the title of vir duxque magnus with the implied qualities that were nothing more than the ideals of the ancient virtues.
For Cassius Dio, he did not pursue power or wealth, but carried on the war for the sake of his people and not for military glory. For romans, his aims could then be (wrongly) compared to pure Roman aristocratic ideals of that time: to serve and gain military glory and honor. Viriathus did not fight for war spoils or material gain, like common soldiers.
Some authors, they saw the Lusitanians honored Viriathus as their Benefactor, (Greek: euergetes), and Savior (Greek: soter), typically Hellenistic honorifics used by kings like the Ptolemies. Other some authors defend he probably was from the Herminius Mons (Serra da Estrela) - in the heart of ethnic Lusitania, (today in central Portugal) or Beira Alta.
Most of his life and his war against the Romans are part of legend and Viriathus is considered the earliest Lusitanian national hero, given the fact that he was the leader of the Confederate tribes of Iberia who resisted Rome. The historian Appianus of Alexandria in his book about Iberia (in the section Historia Romana, Roman History), commented that Viriathus "killed numerous Romans and showed great skill".
It has been argued that Silius Italicus, in his epic poem entitled Punica, mentions a former Viriathus who would have been a contemporary of Hannibal. He is referenced as primo Viriathus in aeuo, and was a leader of the Gallaeci and of the Lusitanians. The historical Viriathus would be the one who received the title of regnator Hiberae magnanimus terrae, the "most magnanimous king of the Iberian land".


Viriato, Herói Ibérico

Viriato, Herói Ibérico

Viriato, Herói Ibérico